药物信息为CLARITHROMYCIN (KAISER FOUNDATION HOSPITALS): CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY

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  • Pharmacokinetics

    Clarithromycin is rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract after oral administration. Theabsolute bioavailability of 250 mg clarithromycin tablets was approximately 50%. For a single 500mg dose of clarithromycin, food slightly delays the onset of clarithromycin absorption, increasing the peak time from approximately 2 to 2.5 hours. Food also increases the clarithromycin peak plasma concentration by about 24%, but does not affect the extent of clarithromycin bioavailability. Food does not affect the onset of formation of the antimicrobially active metabolite, 14-OH clarithromycin or its peak plasma concentration but does slightly decrease the extent of metabolite formation, indicated by an 11% decrease in area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC). Therefore, Clarithromycin Tablets, USP may be given without regard to food.

    In nonfasting healthy human subjects (males and females), peak plasma concentrations wereattained within 2 to 3 hours after oral dosing. Steady-state peak plasma clarithromycin concentrations were attained within 3 days and were approximately 1 to 2 µg/mL with a 250 mg dose administered every 12 hours and 3 to 4 µg/mL with a 500 mg dose administered every 8 to 12 hours. The elimination half-life of clarithromycin was about 3 to 4 hours with 250 mg administered every 12 hours but increased to 5 to 7 hours with 500 mg administered every 8 to 12 hours. The nonlinearity of clarithromycin pharmacokinetics is slight at the recommended doses of 250 mg and 500 mg administered every 8 to 12 hours. With a 250 mg every 12 hours dosing, the principal metabolite, 14-OH clarithromycin, attains a peak steady-state concentration of about 0.6 µg/mL and has an elimination half-life of 5 to 6 hours. With a 500 mg every 8 to 12 hours dosing, the peak steady-state concentration of 14-OH clarithromycin is slightly higher (up to 1 µg/mL), and its elimination half-life is about 7 to 9 hours. With any of these dosing regimens, the steady-state concentration of this metabolite is generally attained within 3 to 4 days.

    After a 250 mg tablet every 12 hours, approximately 20% of the dose is excreted in the urine asclarithromycin, while after a 500 mg tablet every 12 hours, the urinary excretion of clarithromycin is somewhat greater, approximately 30%. In comparison, after an oral dose of 250 mg (125mg/5mL) suspension every 12 hours, approximately 40% is excreted in urine as clarithromycin. The renal clearance of clarithromycin is, however, relatively independent of the dose size and approximates the normal glomerular filtration rate. The major metabolite found in urine is 14-OH clarithromycin, which accounts for an additional 10% to 15% of the dose with either a 250 mg or a 500 mg tablet administered every 12 hours.

    Steady-state concentrations of clarithromycin and 14-OH clarithromycin observed followingadministration of 500 mg doses of clarithromycin every 12 hours to adult patients with HIV infection were similar to those observed in healthy volunteers. In adult HIV-infected patients taking 500 or 1000mg doses of clarithromycin every 12 hours, steady-state clarithromycin Cmax values ranged from 2 to 4 µg/mL and 5 to 10 µg/mL, respectively.

    The steady-state concentrations of clarithromycin in subjects with impaired hepatic function did not differ from those in normal subjects; however, the 14-OH clarithromycin concentrations were lower in the hepatically impaired subjects. The decreased formation of 14-OH clarithromycin was at least partially offset by an increase in renal clearance of clarithromycin in the subjects with impaired hepatic function when compared to healthy subjects.

    The pharmacokinetics of clarithromycin was also altered in subjects with impaired renal function. (See PRECAUTIONS and DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION.)

    Clarithromycin and the 14-OH clarithromycin metabolite distribute readily into body tissues and fluids. There are no data available on cerebrospinal fluid penetration. Because of high intracellularconcentrations, tissue concentrations are higher than serum concentrations. Examples of tissue and serum concentrations are presented below.

    CONCENTRATION (after 250 mg q12h)
    Tissue TypeTissue (µg/g)Serum (µg/mL)
    Tonsil1.60.8
    Lung8.81.7

    BIAXIN XL Filmtab (clarithromycin extended-release tablets) provide extended absorption ofclarithromycin from the gastrointestinal tract after oral administration. Relative to an equal total daily dose of immediate-release clarithromycin tablets, BIAXIN XL tablets provide lower and later steadystate peak plasma concentrations but equivalent 24-hour AUC's for both clarithromycin and its microbiologically-active metabolite, 14-OH clarithromycin. While the extent of formation of 14-OH clarithromycin following administration of BIAXIN XL tablets (2 × 500 mg once daily) is not affected by food, administration under fasting conditions is associated with approximately 30% lower clarithromycin AUC relative to administration with food. Therefore, BIAXIN XL tablets should be taken with food.

    Steady-State Clarithromycin Plasma Concentration-Time Profiles

    In healthy human subjects, steady-state peak plasma clarithromycin concentrations of approximately 2 to 3 µg/mL were achieved about 5 to 8 hours after oral administration of 2 × 500mg BIAXIN XL tablets once daily; for 14-OH clarithromycin, steady-state peak plasma concentrations of approximately 0.8 µg/mL were attained about 6 to 9 hours after dosing. Steady-state peak plasma clarithromycin concentrations of approximately 1 to 2 µg/mL were achieved about 5 to 6 hours after oral administration of a single 500 mg BIAXIN XL tablet once daily; for 14-OH clarithromycin, steadystate peak plasma concentrations of approximately 0.6µg/mL were attained about 6 hours after dosing.

    When 250 mg doses of Clarithromycin for Oral Suspension, USP were administered to fasting healthy adult subjects, peak plasma concentrations were attained around 3 hours after dosing. Steady-state peak plasma concentrations were attained in 2 to 3 days and were approximately 2µg/mL for clarithromycin and 0.7 µg/mL for 14-OH clarithromycin when 250 mg doses of the clarithromycin suspension were administered every 12 hours. Elimination half-life of clarithromycin (3 to 4 hours) and that of 14-OH clarithromycin (5 to 7 hours) were similar to those observed at steady state following administration of equivalent doses of Clarithromycin Tablets, USP.

    For adult patients, the bioavailability of 10 mL of the 125mg/5 mL suspension or 10 mL of the 250mg/5 mL suspension is similar to a 250 mg or 500 mg tablet, respectively.

    In children requiring antibiotic therapy, administration of 7.5 mg/kg q12h doses of clarithromycin asthe suspension generally resulted in steady-state peak plasma concentrations of 3 to 7 µg/mL forclarithromycin and 1 to 2 µg/mL for 14-OH clarithromycin.

    In HIV-infected children taking 15 mg/kg every 12 hours, steady-state clarithromycin peakconcentrations generally ranged from 6 to 15 µg/mL.

    Clarithromycin penetrates into the middle ear fluid of children with secretory otitis media.

    CONCENTRATION (after 7.5 mg/kg q12h for 5 doses)
    AnalyteMiddle Ear Fluid (µg/mL)Serum (µg/mL)
    Clarithromycin2.51.7
    14-OH Clarithromycin1.30.8

    In adults given 250 mg clarithromycin as suspension (n = 22), food appeared to decrease mean peak plasma clarithromycin concentrations from 1.2 (± 0.4) µg/mL to 1.0 (± 0.4) µg/mL and the extent of absorption from 7.2 (± 2.5) hr• µg/mL to 6.5 (± 3.7) hr• µg/mL.

    When children (n = 10) were administered a single oral dose of 7.5 mg/kg suspension, food increased mean peak plasma clarithromycin concentrations from 3.6 (± 1.5) µg/mL to 4.6 (± 2.8)µg/mL and the extent of absorption from 10.0 (± 5.5) hr•µg/mL to 14.2 (± 9.4) hr•µg/mL.

    Clarithromycin 500 mg every 8 hours was given in combination with omeprazole 40 mg daily tohealthy adult males. The plasma levels of clarithromycin and 14-hydroxy-clarithromycin wereincreased by the concomitant administration of omeprazole. For clarithromycin, the mean Cmax was 10% greater, the mean Cmin was 27% greater, and the mean AUC0-8 was 15% greater when clarithromycin was administered with omeprazole than when clarithromycin was administered alone. Similar results were seen for 14-hydroxy-clarithromycin, the mean Cmax was 45% greater, the mean Cmin was 57% greater, and the mean AUC0-8 was 45% greater. Clarithromycin concentrations in the gastric tissue and mucus were also increased by concomitant administration of omeprazole.

    Clarithromycin Tissue Concentrations 2 hours after Dose (µg/mL)/(µg/g)
    TreatmentNantrumfundusNmucus
    Clarithromycin510.48 ± 2.0120.81 ± 7.6444.15 ± 7.74
    Clarithromycin + Omeprazole519.96 ± 4.7124.25 ± 6.37439.29 ± 32.79

    For information about other drugs indicated in combination with clarithromycin, refer to the CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY section of their package inserts.

  • Drug Information Provided by National Library of Medicine (NLM).
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