药物信息为DIAZEPAM ORAL SOLUTION, 5 mg per 5 mL and DIAZEPAM INTENSOL™ Oral Solution (Concentrate), 5 mg per mL (Roxane Laboratories, Inc.): WARNINGS
- CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY
- INDICATIONS AND USAGE
- ADVERSE REACTIONS
- DRUG ABUSE AND DEPENDENCE
- DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION
- HOW SUPPLIED
- Diseases/Conditions Related to DIAZEPAM ORAL SOLUTION, 5 mg per 5 mL and DIAZEPAM INTENSOL™ Oral Solution (Concentrate), 5 mg per mL (Roxane Laboratories, Inc.)
- 外部链接相关的DIAZEPAM ORAL SOLUTION, 5 mg per 5 mL and DIAZEPAM INTENSOL™ Oral Solution (Concentrate), 5 mg per mL (Roxane Laboratories, Inc.)
Diazepam is not of value in the treatment of psychotic patients and should not be employed in lieu of appropriate treatment. As is true of most preparations containing CNS-acting drugs, patients receiving diazepam should be cautioned against engaging in hazardous occupations requiring complete mental alertness such as operating machinery or driving a motor vehicle.
As with other agents which have anticonvulsant activity, when diazepam is used as an adjunct in treating convulsive disorders, the possibility of an increase in the frequency and/or severity of grand mal seizures may require an increase in the dosage of standard anticonvulsant medication. Abrupt withdrawal of diazepam in such cases may also be associated with a temporary increase in the frequency and/or severity of seizures.
Since diazepam has a central nervous system depressant effect, patients should be advised against the simultaneous ingestion of alcohol and other CNS-depressant drugs during diazepam therapy.
Usage in Pregnancy
An increased risk of congenital malformations associated with the use of minor tranquilizers (diazepam, meprobamate and chlordiazepoxide) during the first trimester of pregnancy has been suggested in several studies. Because use of these drugs is rarely a matter of urgency, their use during this period should almost always be avoided. The possibility that a woman of childbearing potential may be pregnant at the time of institution of therapy should be considered. Patients should be advised that if they become pregnant during therapy, or intend to become pregnant, they should communicate with their physicians about the desirability of discontinuing the drug.
Management of Overdosage
Manifestations of diazepam overdosage include somnolence, confusion, coma and diminished reflexes. Respiration, pulse and blood pressure should be monitored, as in all cases of drug overdosage, although, in general, these effects have been minimal following overdosage. General supportive measures should be employed, along with immediate gastric lavage. Intravenous fluids should be administered and an adequate airway maintained. Hypotension may be combated by the use of norepinephrine or metaraminol. Dialysis is of limited value. As with the management of intentional overdosage with any drug, it should be borne in mind that multiple agents may have been ingested.
Flumazenil, a specific benzodiazepine receptor antagonist, is indicated for the complete or partial reversal of the sedative effects of benzodiazepines and may be used in situations when an overdose with a benzodiazepine is known or suspected. Prior to the administration of flumazenil, necessary measures should be instituted to secure airway, ventilation, and intravenous access. Flumazenil is intended as an adjunct to, not as a substitute for, proper management of benzodiazepine overdose. Patients treated with flumazenil should be monitored for re-sedation, respiratory depression, and other residual benzodiazepine effects for an appropriate period after treatment. The prescriber should be aware of a risk of seizure in association with flumazenil treatment, particularly in long-term benzodiazepine users and in cyclic antidepressant overdose. The complete flumazenil package insert including CONTRAINDICATIONS, WARNINGS, and PRECAUTIONS should be consulted prior to use.
Withdrawal symptoms of the barbiturate type have occurred after the discontinuation of benzodiazepines (see DRUG ABUSE AND DEPENDENCE section).
- Drug Information Provided by National Library of Medicine (NLM).