药物信息为Strattera (Physicians Total Care, Inc.): 8 USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS

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  • 8.1  Pregnancy

    Pregnancy Category C — Pregnant rabbits were treated with up to 100 mg/kg/day of atomoxetine by gavage throughout the period of organogenesis. At this dose, in 1 of 3 studies, a decrease in live fetuses and an increase in early resorptions was observed. Slight increases in the incidences of atypical origin of carotid artery and absent subclavian artery were observed. These findings were observed at doses that caused slight maternal toxicity. The no-effect dose for these findings was 30 mg/kg/day. The 100 mg/kg dose is approximately 23 times the maximum human dose on a mg/m2 basis; plasma levels (AUC) of atomoxetine at this dose in rabbits are estimated to be 3.3 times (extensive metabolizers) or 0.4 times (poor metabolizers) those in humans receiving the maximum human dose.

    Rats were treated with up to approximately 50 mg/kg/day of atomoxetine (approximately 6 times the maximum human dose on a mg/m2 basis) in the diet from 2 weeks (females) or 10 weeks (males) prior to mating through the periods of organogenesis and lactation. In 1 of 2 studies, decreases in pup weight and pup survival were observed. The decreased pup survival was also seen at 25 mg/kg (but not at 13 mg/kg). In a study in which rats were treated with atomoxetine in the diet from 2 weeks (females) or 10 weeks (males) prior to mating throughout the period of organogenesis, a decrease in fetal weight (female only) and an increase in the incidence of incomplete ossification of the vertebral arch in fetuses were observed at 40 mg/kg/day (approximately 5 times the maximum human dose on a mg/m2 basis) but not at 20 mg/kg/day.

    No adverse fetal effects were seen when pregnant rats were treated with up to 150 mg/kg/day (approximately 17 times the maximum human dose on a mg/m2 basis) by gavage throughout the period of organogenesis.

    No adequate and well-controlled studies have been conducted in pregnant women. STRATTERA should not be used during pregnancy unless the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus.

    8.2 Labor and Delivery

    Parturition in rats was not affected by atomoxetine. The effect of STRATTERA on labor and delivery in humans is unknown.

    8.3 Nursing Mothers

    Atomoxetine and/or its metabolites were excreted in the milk of rats. It is not known if atomoxetine is excreted in human milk. Caution should be exercised if STRATTERA is administered to a nursing woman.

    8.4 Pediatric Use

    Anyone considering the use of STRATTERA in a child or adolescent must balance the potential risks with the clinical need [see Boxed Warning and Warnings and Precautions (5.1)].

    The pharmacokinetics of atomoxetine in children and adolescents are similar to those in adults. The safety, efficacy, and pharmacokinetics of STRATTERA in pediatric patients less than 6 years of age have not been evaluated.

    A study was conducted in young rats to evaluate the effects of atomoxetine on growth and neurobehavioral and sexual development. Rats were treated with 1, 10, or 50 mg/kg/day (approximately 0.2, 2, and 8 times, respectively, the maximum human dose on a mg/m2 basis) of atomoxetine given by gavage from the early postnatal period (Day 10 of age) through adulthood. Slight delays in onset of vaginal patency (all doses) and preputial separation (10 and 50 mg/kg), slight decreases in epididymal weight and sperm number (10 and 50 mg/kg), and a slight decrease in corpora lutea (50 mg/kg) were seen, but there were no effects on fertility or reproductive performance. A slight delay in onset of incisor eruption was seen at 50 mg/kg. A slight increase in motor activity was seen on Day 15 (males at 10 and 50 mg/kg and females at 50 mg/kg) and on Day 30 (females at 50 mg/kg) but not on Day 60 of age. There were no effects on learning and memory tests. The significance of these findings to humans is unknown.

    8.5 Geriatric Use

    The safety, efficacy and pharmacokinetics of STRATTERA in geriatric patients have not been evaluated.

    8.6 Hepatic Insufficiency

    Atomoxetine exposure (AUC) is increased, compared with normal subjects, in EM subjects with moderate (Child–Pugh Class B) (2–fold increase) and severe (Child–Pugh Class C) (4–fold increase) hepatic insufficiency. Dosage adjustment is recommended for patients with moderate or severe hepatic insufficiency [see Dosage and Administration (2.3)].

    8.7 Renal Insufficiency

    EM subjects with end stage renal disease had higher systemic exposure to atomoxetine than healthy subjects (about a 65% increase), but there was no difference when exposure was corrected for mg/kg dose. STRATTERA can therefore be administered to ADHD patients with end stage renal disease or lesser degrees of renal insufficiency using the normal dosing regimen.

    8.8 Gender

    Gender did not influence atomoxetine disposition.

    8.9 Ethnic Origin

    Ethnic origin did not influence atomoxetine disposition (except that PMs are more common in Caucasians).

    8.10 Patients with Concomitant Illness

    Tics in patients with ADHD and comorbid Tourette’s Disorder — Atomoxetine administered in a flexible dose range of 0.5 to 1.5 mg/kg/day (mean dose of 1.3 mg/kg/day) and placebo were compared in 148 randomized pediatric (age 7-17 years) subjects with a DSM-IV diagnosis of ADHD and comorbid tic disorder in an 18 week, double- blind, placebo-controlled study in which the majority (80%) enrolled in this trial with Tourette’s Disorder (Tourette’s Disorder: 116 subjects; chronic motor tic disorder: 29 subjects). A non-inferiority analysis revealed that STRATTERA did not worsen tics in these patients as determined by the Yale Global Tic Severity Scale Total Score (YGTSS). Out of 148 patients who entered the acute treatment phase, 103 (69.6%) patients discontinued the study. The primary reason for discontinuation in both the atomoxetine (38 of 76 patients, 50.0%) and placebo (45 of 72 patients, 62.5%) treatment groups was identified as lack of efficacy with most of the patients discontinuing at Week 12. This was the first visit where patients with a CGI-S=4 could also meet the criteria for “clinical non-responder” (CGI-S remained the same or increased from study baseline) and be eligible to enter an open-label extension study with atomoxetine.

    Anxiety in patients with ADHD and comorbid Anxiety Disorders - In two post-marketing, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials, it has been demonstrated that treating patients with ADHD and comorbid anxiety disorders with STRATTERA does not worsen their anxiety.

    In a 12-week double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 176 patients, aged 8-17, who met DSM-IV criteria for ADHD and at least one of the anxiety disorders of separation anxiety disorder, generalized anxiety disorder or social phobia were randomized. Following a 2-week double-blind placebo lead-in, STRATTERA was initiated at 0.8 mg/kg/day with increase to a target dose of 1.2 mg/kg/day (median dose 1.30 mg/kg/day +/- 0.29 mg/kg/day). STRATTERA did not worsen anxiety in these patients as determined by the Pediatric Anxiety Rating Scale (PARS). Of the 158 patients who completed the double-blind placebo lead-in, 26 (16%) patients discontinued the study.

    In a separate 16-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 442 patients aged 18-65, who met DSM-IV criteria for adult ADHD and social anxiety disorder (23% of whom also had Generalized Anxiety Disorder) were randomized. Following a 2-week double-blind placebo lead-in, STRATTERA was initiated at 40 mg/day to a maximum dose of 100 mg/day (mean daily dose 83 mg/day +/- 19.5 mg/day). STRATTERA did not worsen anxiety in these patients as determined by the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS). Of the 436 patients who completed the double-blind placebo lead-in, 172 (39.4%) patients discontinued the study.

  • Drug Information Provided by National Library of Medicine (NLM).
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