药物信息为VALPROIC ACID SYRUP (Valproic Acid Oral Solution, USP) 250 mg/5 mL (Morton Grove Pharmaceuticals, Inc.): DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION

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  • Valproic Acid Syrup (Valproic Acid Oral Solution, USP) is administered orally. Valproic acid is indicated as monotherapy and adjunctive therapy in complex partial seizures in adults and pediatric patients down to the age of 10 years, and in simple and complex absence seizures. As the valproic acid dosage is titrated upward, concentrations of phenobarbital, carbamazepine, and/or phenytoin may be affected (see PRECAUTIONS - Drug Interactions).

  • Complex Partial Seizures

  • For adults and children 10 years of age or older.

  • Monotherapy (Initial Therapy)

  • Valproic acid has not been systematically studied as initial therapy. Patients should initiate therapy at 10 to 15 mg/kg/day. The dosage should be increased by 5 to 10 mg/kg/week to achieve optimal clinical response. Ordinarily, optimal clinical response is achieved at daily doses below 60 mg/kg/day. If satisfactory clinical response has not been achieved, plasma levels should be measured to determine whether or not they are in the usually accepted therapeutic range (50 to 100 mcg/mL). No recommendation regarding the safety of valproate for use at doses above 60 mg/kg/day can be made.

    The probability of thrombocytopenia increases significantly at total trough valproate plasma concentrations above 110 mcg/mL in females and 135 mcg/mL in males. The benefit of improved seizure control with higher doses should be weighed against the possibility of a greater incidence of adverse reactions.

  • Conversion to Monotherapy

  • Patients should initiate therapy at 10 to 15 mg/kg/day. The dosage should be increased by 5 to 10 mg/kg/week to achieve optimal clinical response. Ordinarily, optimal clinical response is achieved at daily doses below 60 mg/kg/day. If satisfactory clinical response has not been achieved, plasma levels should be measured to determine whether or not they are in the usually accepted therapeutic range (50 to 100 mcg/mL). No recommendation regarding the safety of valproate for use at doses above 60 mg/kg/day can be made. Concomitant antiepilepsy drug (AED) dosage can ordinarily be reduced by approximately 25% every 2 weeks. This reduction may be started at initiation of valproic acid therapy, or delayed by 1 to 2 weeks if there is a concern that seizures are likely to occur with a reduction. The speed and duration of withdrawal of the concomitant AED can be highly variable, and patients should be monitored closely during this period for increased seizure frequency.

  • Adjunctive Therapy

  • Valproic acid may be added to the patient's regimen at a dosage of 10 to 15 mg/kg/day. The dosage may be increased by 5 to 10 mg/kg/week to achieve optimal clinical response. Ordinarily, optimal clinical response is achieved at daily doses below 60 mg/kg/day. If satisfactory clinical response has not been achieved, plasma levels should be measured to determine whether or not they are in the usually accepted therapeutic range (50 to 100 mcg/mL). No recommendation regarding the safety of valproate for use at doses above 60 mg/kg/day can be made. If the total daily dose exceeds 250 mg, it should be given in divided doses.

    In a study of adjunctive therapy for complex partial seizures in which patients were receiving either carbamazepine or phenytoin in addition to divalproex sodium tablets, no adjustment of carbamazepine or phenytoin dosage was needed (see Clinical Trials). However, since valproate may interact with these or other concurrently administered AEDs as well as other drugs (see Drug Interactions), periodic plasma concentration determinations of concomitant AEDs are recommended during the early course of therapy (see PRECAUTIONS - Drug Interactions).

  • Simple and Complex Absence Seizures

  • The recommended initial dose is 15 mg/kg/day, increasing at one week intervals by 5 to 10 mg/kg/day until seizures are controlled or side effects preclude further increases. The maximum recommended dosage is 60 mg/kg/day. If the total daily dose exceeds 250 mg, it should be given in divided doses.

    A good correlation has not been established between daily dose, serum concentrations, and therapeutic effect. However, therapeutic valproate serum concentrations for most patients with absence seizures is considered to range from 50 to 100 mcg/mL. Some patients may be controlled with lower or higher serum concentrations (see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY).

    As the valproic acid dosage is titrated upward, blood concentrations of phenobarbital and/or phenytoin may be affected (see PRECAUTIONS).

    Antiepilepsy drugs should not be abruptly discontinued in patients in whom the drug is administered to prevent major seizures because of the strong possibility of precipitating status epilepticus with attendant hypoxia and threat to life.

    The following table is a guide for the initial daily dose of Valproic Acid Syrup (Valproic Acid Oral Solution, USP) (15 mg/kg/day):

    WeightTotal DailyDose (mg)Teaspoonfuls of Syrup
    (Kg)(Lb)Dose 1Dose 2Dose 3
    10–24.922–54.9250001
    25–39.955–87.9500101
    40–59.988–131.9750111
    60–74.9132–164.91,000112
    75–89.9165–197.91,250212
  • Dosing in Elderly Patients

  • Due to a decrease in unbound clearance of valproate and possibly a greater sensitivity to somnolence in the elderly, the starting dose should be reduced in these patients. Dosage should be increased more slowly and with regular monitoring for fluid and nutritional intake, dehydration, somnolence, and other adverse events. Dose reductions or discontinuation of valproate should be considered in patients with decreased food or fluid intake and in patients with excessive somnolence. The ultimate therapeutic dose should be achieved on the basis of both tolerability and clinical response (see WARNINGS).

  • Dose-Related Adverse Events

  • The frequency of adverse effects (particularly elevated liver enzymes and thrombocytopenia) may be dose-related. The probability of thrombocytopenia appears to increase significantly at total valproate concentrations of ≥ 110 mcg/mL (females) or ≥ 135 mcg/mL (males) (see PRECAUTIONS). The benefit of improved therapeutic effect with higher doses should be weighed against the possibility of a greater incidence of adverse reactions.

  • G.I. Irritation

  • Patients who experience G.I. irritation may benefit from administration of the drug with food or by slowly building up the dose from an initial low level.

  • Drug Information Provided by National Library of Medicine (NLM).
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